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Artists' biographies : Guy de MAUPASSANT

Date of birth: 1850

Date of death: 1893

Nationality : Guy de MAUPASSANT

Guy de Maupassant, born Henry-Rene-Albert-Guy de Maupassant August 5, 1850 at Castle Miromesnil at Tourville-sur-Arques and died July 6, 1893 in Paris, was a French writer. Related to Gustave Flaubert and Emile Zola, he marked French literature by his six novels, including A Life in 1883, Bel-Ami in 1885, Peter and John in 1887-88, but especially by his new (over 300) sometimes titled tales, as Boule de Suif in 1880, Tales of the woodcock in 1883 or in 1887 Horla. These works attract attention by their realistic force, the strong presence of fantasy and pessimism that emerges most often but also the stylistic mastery. The literary career of Guy de Maupassant is limited to a decade - from 1880 to 1890 - before it gradually sinks into madness and die at forty-two years. Recognized in his lifetime, Guy de Maupassant retains a prominent leading, again renewed by the many adaptations of his works filmed. Maupassant's were an old family from Lorraine who had settled in Lower Seine (now Seine-Maritime, Normandy) in the mid nineteenth century. His father, Gustave de Maupassant had married in 1846 the Poittevin Laura, a young lady of bourgeois. With his brother Alfred, she had been a friend of Gustave Flaubert, the son of a surgeon of Rouen, who had some influence on his son's life. She was a woman of unusual literary culture, very fond of the classics, especially Shakespeare. In 1856, she gave birth to Herve's younger brother Guy. Separated from her unfaithful husband in 1860, she moved with her two son at Etretat (she survive her two son, their father also). Guy spent his childhood in the house "The Verguies" at Etretat, where, between sea and countryside, he grew up in the love of nature and outdoor sports, he goes fishing with the fishermen of the coast and spoke patois with farmers. He is deeply attached to his mother. At age thirteen, he was a resident of the ecclesiastical institution Yvetot, according to the wishes of his mother. It was here that he began to versify. Its first Catholic education, it will retain a marked hostility towards religion, he will eventually get fired. He then enrolled in high school in Rouen, where he proved a good student, devoting himself to poetry and participating in many plays. At that time, he meets Bouilhet especially Gustave Flaubert, he became the disciple. In 1868 holiday in Etretat, he saves from drowning English decadent poet Charles Algernon Swinburne who invited him to dinner in appreciation for his courage. He sees this occasion a severed hand, a theme that will be used later ... Bachelor of Arts in 1869, he studied law in Paris on the advice of his mother and Flaubert. The war that promises will frustrate those plans. In 1870, he enlisted as a volunteer in the Franco-Prussian War. Applied first in stewardship and service in the artillery, he participated in the retirement of Norman armies before the German advance. After the war, he pays a replacement for him to complete his military service, and left Normandy to live permanently in Paris. In Paris, Guy de Maupassant spent ten years as a clerk first in the Navy Department and the Department of Public Instruction where he was transferred in 1878. At night he works hard at his literary work. In late January 1877 Turgenev met him and located decrepit. Diagnosis falls: syphilis. This disease - it will die - will continue to poison the lives of the young man, even if he pokes fun then, "I have the pox! Finally the true! (...) And I'm proud and damn it I despise above all bourgeois. " During these ten years, his distraction is boating on the Seine, always gallant company, on Sunday, and holidays. Gustave Flaubert took him under his wing and became for him a kind of literary mentor, guiding his debut in journalism and literature. Flaubert, he met the Russian novelist Ivan Turgenev and Emile Zola, and many writers belonging to the naturalistic and realistic schools. He wrote many poems and short plays. He also began to contribute articles to several major newspapers like Le Figaro, Gil Blas, Le Gaulois and the Echo de Paris, and devoted his spare time to writing novels and short stories. Flaubert always encouraged by the old family friend, in 1879 he published his first book, a pamphlet of a hundred pages of "History of old days." Having linked with Zola, in 1880 he participated in the collective work of the naturalist writers Soirees de Medan with his first short story, Boule de Suif, which immediately won a great success and that Flaubert describes as "a masterpiece that will remain ". The same year, the sudden disappearance of Flaubert leaves the new writer alone with his fate. The decade from 1880 to 1890 is the most fertile period of Maupassant's life: he published six novels, more than three hundred new and some travelogues. Made famous by his first novel, he worked methodically and annually produces two and sometimes four volumes. Business acumen joined his talent brought him wealth. In 1881 he published his first volume of short stories under the title of La Maison Tellier, who in two years reached its twelfth edition. 1883, Maupassant finished his first novel, which has cost him six years since 1877: A life that is, twenty-five thousand copies were sold in less than a year. Leo Tolstoy in person, say about this novel: "This is the greatest masterpiece of French literature, from Les Miserables." With the copyright of The Tellier House, Maupassant built his house, "La Guillette," or "house of Guy" at Etretat. The house is invaded every summer by Maupassant and his friends. In 1883, his first born child, a boy he does not recognize the son of Josephine Litzelmann, a donor Châtelguyon water. A daughter born the following year, then a third in 1887, unrecognized. In 1884, he saw an affair with the Countess Potocka Emmanuela, a rich socialite, beautiful and spiritual. In October of that year, he completed the writing of the Bel-Ami "Guillette." In his novels, Guy de Maupassant concentrates all his observations scattered in his short stories. His second novel Bel-ami, appeared in 1885, has thirty to seven runs in four months. And if we add to the literature sense of well-Norman affairs, Maupassant says with a laugh: "Bel-Ami is me! ". Significant works by style, description, design and penetration escape of his fertile pen. He wrote three years later that some consider the most successful of his novels, Peter and John, in 1887/88. His natural aversion for society and its frail wear it to retirement, solitude and meditation. He traveled extensively in Algeria, Italy, England, Britain, Sicily, Auvergne, and each trip has to be synonymous with new volumes and reports to the press. It took a cruise on his private yacht, named "Bel Ami", based on the novel of 1885. This cruise where it goes through Cannes and Agay Saint-Tropez on the water inspires him. There will be a "Bel-Ami II." His travels, he keeps a preference for Corsica, he places the same Corsican peasant above the Norman peasant, because hospital ... Anyway, this feverish life, this need for space, and often forget the disease that accounts for, do not prevent him from making friends among the literary celebrities of his day: Alexandre Dumas devotes his son fatherly affection. Guy also falls under the spell of the philosopher-historian Taine met at Aix-les-Bains. If he remains friends with Zola and Turgenev, however Maupassant's friendship with Goncourt last long: his frankness and his sharp eye on the human comedy do not fit the atmosphere of gossip, scandal, duplicity and envious criticism that the brothers have created around them in the guise of a literary salon in the manner of the eighteenth century ... The quarrel with the Goncourt starts about a subscription for a monument to Flaubert. In 1887, her brother Herve was interned once, and get sick again later this year. In August 1889 he was again confined to the asylum at Lyon-Bron. He died there in November. In his later years, develop in him an overwhelming desire for solitude, a survival instinct sickly, a constant fear of death, and a certain paranoia, probably due to a familial predisposition, his mother was depressed and his brother died insane but especially syphilis, contracted during his younger years. Maupassant is doing more harm, its mental and physical condition continues to deteriorate, and numerous consultations and treatments in Plombières-les-Bains, Aix-les-Bains Gérardmer or change nothing. In August 1890 he started The Soul foreign, it will never end. In 1891, he began a novel, The Angelus, he does not complete either. December 31, he sent a farewell letter to Dr. Cazalis is its last lines. On the night of January 1 to January 2, 1892, he attempted suicide at gun (his servant, Francis Tassart, had removed the real bullets). He then breaks a window and tries to open the throat. One house in Paris on January 6 in the clinic of Dr. Emile Blanche, where he died of general paralysis, a month before his forty-third birthday, July 6, 1893, after eighteen months of almost unconscious. On the death certificate is the word 'born in Sotteville, near Yvetot, "which opens the controversy over his birthplace. He is buried in Montparnasse Cemetery in Paris (26th Division). A few years ago, Guy de Maupassant wrote, "I entered the literature as a meteor, I will come out like a thunderbolt."

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